WELCOME TO OUR HISTORY PAGE
© DenRon Collections 2015
We are often asked the provenance and/or history of items in our collection so we will gradually add items with their background history on this page
PLEASE CLICK ON FOTO TO ENLARGE AND SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE NUMBER 1
1) The Russian Queen Wilhelmina cup / beaker
2) The engagement plate of Princess Juliana to Prince Karel of Sweden
3) Princess Marianne of Orange Nassau
4) Royal Vienna portrait plate Queen Wilhelmina 1898
5) Gold watch wedding Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik 1901
6) Paul Berthon’s art nouveau litho of Queen Wilhelmina 1901
7) Queen Wilhelmina silver coronation glass 1898
8) The silver enameled portrait spoons and the grand tour
9) Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch Indies
10) The commercial side of Queen Wilhelmina
11) Oranjalia made by foreign firms
12) Thimble made to commemorate the wedding of Queen Wilhelmina 1901
13) Trial examples
14) Rare Queen Wilhelmina commemoratives made of glass part 1
15) The first Wilhelmina commemoratives
16)Rare Queen Wilhelmina commemoratives made of glass part 2
17) Special memorabilia made by Amstelhoek and Eskaf
18) Queen Wilhelmina souvenirs with a stanhope lens
19) The Amsterdam world exhibitions 1883 & 1895
20) Souvenirs from the French period of King Lodewijk (Louis) Napoleon and Queen Hortense
21) Princess Alice and the House of orange
22) Oranjalia on English creamware
23) Trial Lusterware plate by L. Cachet ruby jubilee Queen Wilhelmina 1938
24) The House of Orange and the Romanovs
25) Glass sulphides scent bottle with portrait of King Willem I
26) Prince Frederick of The Netherlands (1797-1881)
27) Queen Wilhelmina jasper ware souvenirs
28) Centenary of Dutch independence 1813-1913
29) The Golden coach
30) Special souvenirs made for the wedding of Queen Wilhelmina & Prince Hendrik
31) The Dutch Regalia
32) Wilhelmina of Prussia (1774-1837)
33) The Royal palace Amsterdam
34) Willem of Orange
35) The Netherlands and Belgium
36) The Queen Emma vases by St Lukas pottery
37) Royal school tins
38) The History of commemorative textiles
39) Prince Hendrik and the Ferry boat SS Berlin
40) The History of the stevengraphs (silk portraits)
41) The earliest Royal silver wedding to be commemorated
42) The History of the enamel commemorative beakers
43) Royal playing cards
44) War & Peace
45) The birth of Princess Juliana 1909
46) The Royal designs by C.A. Lion Cachet
47) Wilhelmina in mourning attire
48) Diana princess of Wales souvenirs
49) Queen Emma commemoratives (1858-1934)
50) King Willem I souvenirs (1772-1843)
51) The clog as Royal commemorative
52) Sugared almonds for Prinses Beatrix & Claus von Amsberg at the town hall of Baarn for the reading of the banns of marriage on 17th February 1966.
53) Souvenir jug birth princess Beatrix ” House of lords”
54) The House of Orange depicted on stained glass window hangers
54* THE HOUSE OF ORANGE DEPICTED ON STAINED GLASS WINDOW HANGERS
Stained glass dates from the Roman period. The Romans made window glass but could not make large surfaces so they came up with the idea to connect small pieces of glass together with lead strips.
Large windows were made especially for churches using this method depicting Biblical stories.
During the renaissance the art of making stained glass flourished and there were many guilds specializing in this art form.
Until the 1930’s it was also very popular to have stained glass in domestic residences. Small stained glass items to hang in windows were very popular.
For centuries the Dutch made these stained glass window hangers to commemorate Royal occasions so that the folk could show their love for the House of Orange.
The city museum of Rotterdam has one dating from 1795 showing prince Willem V fleeing to England following the French occupation of the Lowlands.
On the inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina in 1898 a number of stained glass window hangers were made. One in our collection was made in Germany where this art form was very popular.
In the Netherlands Jan Schouten opened his own studio for stained glass ’t Prinsenhof in Delft in 1889.
He was very well known and made stained glass windows for among others the New Church (Nieuwe Kerk) in Amsterdam and for the Palace of Peace in The Hague.
He also produced a window hanger for the ruby jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina in 1938.
Nowadays window hangers are not so popular anymore but the stained glass in making a come back by new up and coming artist
53* SOUVENIR JUG BIRTH PRINCESS BEATRIX ” HOUSE OF LORDS’
The House of lords was a famous restaurant in the centre of The Hague.
The building was one of the oldest in the city. In 1595 it was known as Huys Teijlingen. In 1628 it was renamed to The Golden Lion. In 1917 the restaurant became the House of lords by request of the British military who were stationed here during world war one. They visited the restaurant and discussed strategies there.
The restaurant was frequented by the chic people of the Hague as well as prominent businessmen and politicians. Nowadays House of lords is a catering business. In 1938 when princess Beatrix was born they commissioned a jug for the restaurant to commemorate her birth. The jugs were made by the Royal pottery Zuid Holland in Gouda. Not many were made making this a very special Royal commemorative.
52* SUGARED ALMONDS FOR PRINCESS BEATRIX & CLAUS VON AMSBERG
The reading of the wedding banns of princess Beatrix and Claus von Amsberg took place at the city hall of Baarn on the 17th of February 1966. The event was broadcast live on television. The purpose of the reading of the wedding banns is to let everyone know of the intention to get married.
After the ceremony the couple went to the Hall of Knights in The Hague for a large reception.
It was here that the mayor and other important people came to congratulate them. It turned into an old fashioned Dutch wedding party atmosphere. At the end of the reception 300 hundred little parachutes in the colors red, white, blue and orange (the colors of the Dutch flag are red white blue and orange is for the House of orange) cascaded down from the ceiling. Every one of them had a small parcel of 5 sugared almonds attached to it. They stand for love, loyalty, happiness, prosperity and fertility.
All the guests including the Royal Family tried to catch one of them. Afterwards the couple made a tour through the city of The Hague in an open carriage.
We have two in our collection still intact with the sugared almonds.
51* THE CLOG AS ROYAL COMMEMORATIVE
Clogs are wooden shoes they exist for centuries and were usually worn by farmers and working class people through out Europe.
Dutch clogs are traditionally painted in yellow sometimes with different decorations depending on the area. During the week people wore unpainted clogs and for church on Sunday the men wore black painted clogs and the women natural varnished clogs adorned with painted flowers.
Clogs are known as typically Dutch and the souvenir industry made use of this.
The Netherlands is the only country that uses the clog to make Royal commemoratives. The oldest known is two wooden clogs made for the inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina in 1898. The two clogs painted gold with her portrait on the top came in a purpose made case (not in our collection).
To commemorate the silver jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina in 1923 several potteries produced a commemorative clog. Regina Gouda made a beautiful dark green clog and the Arnhem Faïence factory came with a brown clog in several different editions.
For the jubilees in 1938 and 1948 several commemorative clogs were made.
Especially the hand painted wooden clogs made with the typical decoration from the Friesian town of Hindeloopen are worth mentioning. A Delft blue clog made in Gouda is also quite unique.
The tradition continues with clogs made to commemorate the births of the children of princess Beatrix in the 1960’s.
For the inauguration of Queen Beatrix in 1980 a pottery factory in Gouda made a large clog, all hand painted in a limited edition.
In 2002 we decided to pick up the tradition ourselves and commissioned several clogs, starting with the the wedding of prince Willem-Alexander & princess Maxima, then in 2005 for the silver jubilee of Queen Beatrix and in 2013 to commemorate the creation of the title for the heir apparent, princess of Orange, given to princess Catharina Amalia.
See more clogs on our photo album nr 21 on our website
50* KING WILLEM I SOUVENIRS (1772-1843)
Willem Ist was born on the 24th of august 1772 in the Hague and was named Willem Frederik Prince of Orange Nassau. He was the third son of stadholder prince Willem V and his wife Wilhelmina of Prussia. His two elder brothers remained nameless and died shortly after birth. Making Willem the heir to become stadholder . Willem marries his cousin Wilhelmina of Prussia in 1791 the couple have 5 children. Wilhelmina died in 1837.
When in 1795 the French occupy the Netherlands prince Willem V and his family fled to England.
By 1813 the French lose power and support and a group of notables from The Hague ask Willem to return to The Netherlands. On the 30th of November 1813 he sets foot on Dutch soil by landing on the beach of Scheveningen. On the 30th of March 1814 he is inaugurated as sovereign monarch of the Netherlands in the new church of Amsterdam.
In 1815 after the fall of Napoleon at he congress of Vienna The Netherlands and Belgium became one country and Willem became King of the Netherlands. On the 21st of September he was inaugurated as King in Brussels. In 1815 he also became Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
On the 7th of October 1840 he abdicated in favour of his son. He is then known as King Willem Frederik count of Nassau.
In February 1841 he married again to the catholic countess Henriette d”Oultremont de Wegimont in Berlin. This is also where he died on the 12th of December 1843 at the age of 71. During his reign he gathered a fortune and in 1835 this was estimated at 200 million guilders.
Souvenirs of Willem Ist are rare. We have some items mostly made of Brussels porcelain made to commemorate his inauguration as King.
49* QUEEN EMMA COMMEMORATIVES (1858-1934)
Following the death of Queen Sophie in 1877 King Willem III intended to marry his mistress a French actress called Éleonore d’Ambre. Most people were against this and the king abandoned the idea. In 1878 the king went to Germany to look for a new wife. He found her in the small German kingdom of Waldeck-Pyrmont.
It was princess Emma, born in 1858 and 20 years old. At first the king wanted her 2 year older sister Pauline to become his bride but she refused. Emma made it known that she was willing to become the Queen of the Netherlands. The engagement was announced on the 30th of September 1878 and the couple married on the 7th of January 1879 in Arolsen Germany thus Emma became Queen of the Netherlands. To commemorate this event some souvenirs were made for example a porcelain pipe with portraits of the couple.
Most Dutch people were not so happy with the king’s choice of bride. The couple settled in Palace het Loo and on the 26th of march 1880 it was officially announced the Queen was pregnant.
On the 31st of august 1880 princess Wilhelmina was born. In 1884 after the death of her half brother crown prince Alexander Wilhelmina became the heir to the throne. In November 1890 king Willem III died and Wilhelmina became queen but because she was too young to reign her mother Emma became regentess until Wilhelmina reached the age of 18.
Emma recognized that the Royal family was not so popular anymore. She took the young Wilhelmina on a tour of the Netherlands to introduce her to the people. She also arranged that photos of the young queen were distributed so the people came to know her.
Emma played a big part in the increasing popularity of the young queen.
In 1898 many inauguration souvenirs were produced, many included an image of Emma on them.
In 1901 after Wilhelmina got married Emma moved to Palace het Lange Voorhout in the Hague, the summer months she spent on palace Soestdijk.
She led a quiet life and spent a lot of her time on her many charities. She became known as the loveliest old lady of Europe.
In 1928 for her 70th birthday some commemoratives were made (see also article nr 36) also 5 years later for her 75th birthday souvenirs were made, for example a Leerdam glass vase.
Soon after her health deteriorated and she became bedridden early march 1934, on the 20th of march the grand old lady died.
Several in memoriam souvenirs were made, here some examples from our collection.
48* DIANA PRINCESS OF WALES SOUVENIRS
On august 31 2017 it is 20 years ago that princess Diana died in a tragic car accident in Paris.
In her short life thousands of souvenirs were made to commemorate important events in her life.
When she married prince Charles in 1981 so many souvenirs were for sale that the Royal commemorative society issued a catalog of 280 pages of the items that were produced for this event.
Most were mass produced cheap items but some of the more well known factories made some more expensive and exclusive items for this event.
In 1982 for her 21st birthday souvenirs were made.
In 1992 her marriage with prince Charles failed and the couple separated.
In 1996 the divorce was finalised. For both occasions commemoratives were made.
In 1997 on august 31 this still loved princess lost her life in a car accident in Paris. Many in memoriam souvenirs were made. Here are some from our collection in memory of Diana princess of Wales.
47* WILHELMINA IN MOURNING ATTIRE
Following the death of her father King Willem III on the 23rd of November 1890 Wilhelmina became Queen and her life drastically changed from there on.
According to protocol a period of deep mourning was observed. For the first 6 months Wilhelmina was obliged to wear black. After 6 months she went into a period of father’s mourning or half mourning. In this period she was allowed to wear black and/or white. Her mother the Queen Regentess was obliged to wear black all the time.
Many fashion houses were contracted to make clothes for the young Queen including some from abroad. The most important one was Mrs. Moon from Regent Street in London. From 1880-1896 a copious amount of clothing was ordered here for Wilhelmina.
Following the death of Willem III, Emma as Regentess ordered a mourning dress and coat for Wilhelmina from Mrs. Moon. The total bill came to 15.5 pounds sterling (397 Dutch guilders). The clothes were made of black cloth lined with black silk and the dress had a black silk petticoat.
On the 18th of March 1891 Adolphe Zimmermans, a famous photographer from The Hague, took a photo of the young Queen in this dress. The dress had a black veil of tulle, she was wearing a necklace of black French jet (black glass) in her hands she held a bouquet of white flowers.
This photo was used by the firm Boldoot from Amsterdam on this scent bottle made circa 1891. The image of Wilhelmina taken from the side was also used on a number of souvenirs.
INFO: Dressed as royalty: Wilhelmina from 1880-1962
46* THE ROYAL DESIGNS BY C.A. LION CACHET
Cachet was an artist and designer, he was born in Amsterdam in 1864 and died in 1945.
He was one of the pioneers of the Dutch art Nouveau style and developed the batik style (a style originally from Java Indonesia).
These styles were typical for his designs. This artist was very knowledgeable of his materials and he designed things such as pottery, wallpaper, billboards, banknotes, furniture, medals and interiors for large ships and buildings.
In 1898 he designed a plate for the inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina in batik style made by Petrus Regout of Maastricht and presented to the schoolchildren of Amsterdam. There were 77,875 plates made, making this one of the most common commemorative plates made in The Netherlands.
In 1901 he designed a tin plaque for the wedding of Queen Wilhelmina. Only the front had a design, the reverse was left blank. It came in crowned monogrammed box and was made by the Amsterdam firm J.A Gerritsen. There were 45,000 made and were presented to the schoolboys of Amsterdam. 23 of these plaques were made in silver and two were presented to the Royal couple when they visited Amsterdam. The schoolgirls were given a flowerpot also designed by Cachet and made by the firm Amstelhoek. 41,500 were made but the quality was so bad that not many survived.
In 1909 he designed a beaker to commemorate the birth of princess Juliana. Made by the Maastricht firm the Sphinx and presented as a gift to the schoolchildren of Amsterdam. Two different copies exist.
Petrus Regout used his design of the 1898 plate to make a set of child plates to be presented in a cassette of 6 to the Queen in honour of the birth of princess Juliana. These plates are only 8cm in diameter and are exact copies of the original plate. Only a few were made one is in our collection.
A year later he designed a plate for the first birthday of princess Juliana.
In 1923 Cachet designed a plate for the silver jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina for the firm Distel but they never went into production (see article nr 13).
Also for the Distel he designed a rare vase with a lion décor for the silver jubille of Queen Wilhelmina.
In 1925 the firm RAM came with a plate designed by Cachet for the 25th birthday of princess Juliana. Only a small number were made.
In 1936 he designed a plate for the engagement of princess Juliana with prince Karel of Sweden. The engagement never happened so the plate never went into production. Only 3 copies are known to exist (see article nr 2).
In 1938 he designed a plate for the ruby jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina for the firm Goedewaagen but these never went into production (see article nr 23).
He was a personal friend of the Royal family and received a knighthood from Queen Wilhelmina on his 60th birthday
INFORMATION SOURCE: THE BOOK C.A. LION CACHET 1864-1945
45* THE BIRTH OF PRINCESS JULIANA 1909
Following her marriage to Prince Hendrik people hoped that a baby would soon be born.
However after several years the couple drifts apart and still no baby.
The Queen found out that her husband was not the man she married. He vacationed frequently abroad and there were stories of him having affairs and of his alcohol abuse.
These were obviously reasons for a lack of a royal pregnancy.
Wilhelmina wanted desperately to become a mother and realized how vital it was that she produced an heir to the throne for the country.
Wilhelmina had 5 miscarriages (the last one in 1912) and at last at the end of 1908 she was expecting a baby.
The people were very excited but also fearful that things could go wrong again.
The baby was expected mid April, but on the 30th of April 1909 at 6.50 in the morning a healthy baby girl was born.
The Dutch folk were relieved. The dynasty was safe.
There were many celebrations everywhere in the country.
A plethora of commemoratives were produced and they sold like hotcakes. Many had the famous photo printed on them of mother and baby.
The little princess was named Juliana after the mother of Willem of Orange, the founder of the Dutch Royal House of Orange. Juliana was baptized on the 5th of June at the Willems church in the Hague. She became Queen of the Netherlands in 1948 and abdicated in 1980.
Here are some of the commemoratives made for the birth:
44* WAR & PEACE
The Dutch stayed neutral during world war one for which Queen Wilhelmina was very pleased. The Queen had strong feelings for the army a tradition going back to her ancestors. Her pleas for a strong defense during WW 1 led to many conflicts with her government.
In September 1939 WW2 broke out in Europe. The Dutch wanted to remain neutral again, but the Germans entered the Netherlands in the 10th of may.
The Queen knew in advance of the attack of which the main purpose was to capture the members of the cabinet and the Royal family, this failed.
The Queen made sure that her daughter Juliana fled to England on the 12th of may 1940. Later she went on to Canada where she remained with her daughters until after the war.
Wilhelmina herself refused to leave the country. She thought that by doing so her people would see her as a coward. However on the 14th of May her cabinet decided that she had to leave the country, she went to England. On arriving she gave a proclamation explaining why she had to leave. Her Majesty stayed in London with her government at 82 Eaton Square.
Souvenirs were made to commemorate both wars.
A rare beaker made in 1914 to commemorate the mobilized troops who stayed at fort Bij ‘t Hemeltje near the city of Utrecht during WW1. This strong point was built ca. 1880 to withstand any attacks.
Two rare beakers made to commemorate the end of WW1 in 1918 and one to commemorate the official ending of the war in 1919 the treaty of Versailles.
Two plaques were made to commemorate the time Queen Wilhelmina spent in London. The end of WW2 was celebrated with many souvenirs, such as this rare beaker showing the flags of the countries that liberated the Netherlands also an ashtray made out of the metal from the containers, which was used to drop food out of the airplanes on The Netherlands during WW2.
43* ROYAL PLAYING CARDS
This special deck of cards was first issued by C. L. Wüst for the Dutch market in 1890 to celebrate Queen Wilhelmina’s accession to the throne (as a 10 years old) upon the death of her father King William III.
It was re-issued again in 1898 when she for her enthronement as Queen Regnant of the Netherlands.
The first set has a box showing a picture of Wilhelmina as a child and the second a picture of her as a young woman. Both these editions have the queen of spades showing a Javanese woman, and the queen of hearts representing the Netherlands (the Dutch Virgin). The 3rd edition is from c. 1905 and contains different queens of spades and hearts both in regional costume. The Aces show views of Dutch cities or colonies. The Kings depict Dutch sovereigns, the Jacks are soldiers and the Queens show traditional costumes. The Wüst firm was established in 1811 in Frankfurt Germany and continued until 1927.
We also have a deck of cards issued in Batavia Indonesia in 1879 for the wedding of King Willem III and Queen Emma by the firm Eynste Java playing cards.
INFO: The world of playing cards website
42* THE HISTORY OF THE ENAMEL COMMEMORATIVE BEAKERS
The use of enamel is over 2000 years old. The Egyptians used it on statues and golden objects. They knew that the use of enamel made the object last longer and and the hard surface was easier to clean.
The Kelts used this technique to make jewelry and the Romans used enamel on glass objects. The use of enamel went on for centuries and in the middle ages the French city of Limoges was the centre for the use of enamel on all kinds of ojects.
Much later enamel was used for everyday use on pots and pans etc.
Enamel is a mixture of quartz, feldspar the minearal borax and china clay. When this mixture is melted you can put it on an object and then heat it.
Between the late 19th century and early 20th century enamel commemorative beakers were issued in great quantities by various factories.
The first of these beakers was issued in 1896 by the then Bohemian firm of B.G. Gottlieb for the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
The firm Gottlieb was founded in 1880 in the town of BRNO and continued to be owned and run by the family until 1945.
They also produced helmets, kitchen utensils etc.
In the UK the first advert for enamel beakers appeared in 1897 for the Diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria by the firm of WM. Robinson ltd of Wolverhampton.
In the Netherlands the first enamel commemorative beakers were made in 1898 when Queen Wilhelmina was enthroned. Many of these were made by the firm Berk from Kampen.
Later more firms started to make enamel commemorative beakers. A tradition still going on today in the UK but not so in other countries due to high production costs and declining sales.
Here are some examples from our collection:
INFORMATION : Journal of the Commemorative Collectors Society 1991
More photos on our website photo albums Enamel beakers & British commemoratives
See also our article on the Russian enamel beakers on the bottom of this page article nr 1
41* THE EARLIEST ROYAL SILVER WEDDING TO BE COMMEMORATED
The celebration of a royal wedding is a relatively recent custom. The earliest known commemoratives for a British Royal silver wedding being issued in 1888 for the Prince and Princess of Wales (Albert & Alexandra) although the silver wedding for Crown Prince Frederik and Princess Victoria of Germany in 1883 produced some mugs and beakers.
This plate must surely be the earliest and most unusual wedding commemorative to be issued.
It is an earthenware plate 25,5 cm in diameter with a transfer print decoration of King Willem III of the Netherlands (1849-1890) and his first wife Queen Sophie. All in black transfer print. Made by Societe Ceramique Maastricht.
Underneath the portraits is an inscription in Javanese and reads” Bagindo Ratu Welandi, Bagindo Mohorojo Welandi”.
The lower row is in Arabic and reads “Baginda Ratu Olanda, Baginda Maharaja Olanda” both translated in English are Her Majesty the Queen of Holland and His Majesty the King of Holland.
In the centre, between the inscriptions, the words “Java” and “Samarang” appear. Samarang is the capital of North Java.
At this time Indonesia was ruled by the Dutch.
This plate was issued in 1864, and was for sale in the Dutch Indies.
King Willem III was the father of Queen Wilhelmina. He remarried later in life to Emma of Waldeck Piermont, sister to the wife of one of Queen Victoria’s sons, Prince Leopold.
Since discovering this most unusual piece it came to light that this transfer was applied to a number of different items such as a soup dish, a meat plate and a large mug.
source: Journal of the Commemorative Collectors Society issue no:3 1974
40* THE HISTORY OF THE STEVENGRAPHS (SILK PICTURES)
Stevengraphs are pictures woven from silk, originally created by Thomas Stevens in the 19th century.
Thomas Stevens, a local weaver from Coventry adapted the looms to weave colourful pictures from silk. By 1862, Stevens could produce four different designs and by the late 1880s over 900; they became known as “Stevengraphs”, after their maker. Many of these designs were used to produce bookmarks, while others were used to make greeting cards and other silk objects such as portraits of Royalty, military figures, famous people and even buildings.
By the 1930s, Stevengraphs were considered collectable items, but the hobby was considered eccentric and mainly confined to female collectors.
After the war Stevengraphs became valuable, with more male collectors entering the hobby. Prices rose, particularly for unusual or rarer images less popular during the Victorian period.
Silk portraits were also made of members of the Dutch Royal family .
HERE ARE SOME FROM OUR COLLECTION:
39* PRINCE HENDRIK AND THE FERRY BOAT S S BERLIN
In the early hours of the morning of the 21st February 1907 the ferry Berlin, travelling from Harwich, ran onto the pier at the Hook of Holland during a heavy storm.
The boat broke in two halves and the bow sank into the icy cold water. Many crew and passengers jumped into the water. The lifeboat could not get near enough and many people drowned.
Prince Hendrik, the husband of Queen Wilhelmina, was nearby in the Hague and the next morning he drove to the place of the disaster. First he went to the morgue to pay his respects to the dead. Following this he spoke with a survivor.
He boarded a pilot steamboat and together with a lifeboat they went to the Berlin. They managed to save 11 passengers. The prince helped to warm the survivors with blankets and gave them hot coffee and brandy.
When the prince arrived on shore he was met with a loud ovation. 128 of the 144 people aboard the Berlin died. This was the biggest disaster at sea during peace time in Dutch history.
Queen Wilhelmina was delighted when she heard of what her husband had done. The prince received a lot of goodwill from the Dutch people by doing this.
To commemorate this event postcards were made and when the prince died in 1934 a commemorative plate was made with a reference to this disaster.
38* THE HISTORY OF COMMEMORATIVE TEXTILES
It is a tradition to make printed textiles to celebrate Royal events. Usually cotton handkerchiefs or flags with the portrait of the monarch.
Also to commemorate important moments in history like the battle of Waterloo or the celebration of the 1st centenary of Dutch Independence in 1913 are printed on textile.
In 1813 when the Netherlands became a Kingdom the house of Orange became more popular and their portraits were printed on commemorative textiles, usually in the colours orange or red.
They were made in different sizes, the large ones were used as neckerchiefs.
The market was flooded with these printed textiles when the young Queen Wilhelmina was inaugurated in 1898. Printed textile souvenirs were also made in 1901 for her wedding and for her jubilees in 1923, 1938 and 1948.
Specially woven damask table linen was also made as commemorative items. One example was usually given to the King or Queen as a gift.
For example when Princess Beatrix married Prince Claus in 1966 a commemorative damask tablecloth and napkin set was presented to them as a wedding gift.
This tradition is still kept alive today; when King Willem- Alexander was enthroned in 2013 the firm Vlisco made a limited edition commemorative textile to celebrate this moment.
info from the Museum of Textiles in Nijmegen
Here are some examples from our collection:
37* ROYAL SCHOOL TINS
What are school tins? Well they are typically Dutch!
In the late 19th and early 20th century school children did not have pens, pencils or exercise books. They used to write on a piece of slate with a chalk stick. Every child had his own slate and chalk stick and also a little tin box (school tin).
These tins had a lid on each end and in the middle a partition making two halves. In one half there was a little sponge and in the other half a piece of shammy leather. So the child could wipe his slate clean when it was full or having made a mistake. The outside of these tins were often decorated with children’s stories but also with pictures/scenes of the Royal family.
These tins were subject to rust because of the wet sponges inside and their rough use by their owners (children will be children) so not many survived. This is the reason these tins especially in a good condition, are very rare.
Here are some examples from our collection:
36* THE QUEEN EMMA VASES BY THE ST LUKAS POTTERY
The pottery St Lukas was founded by two brothers-in-law in Utrecht in 1909.
In the beginning they made expensive pottery using luster glaze, the factory had to close in 1923 due to a lack of business.
In 1927 it started again on a smaller scale in the town of Maarssen. The products they made were a lot simpler using primary colours, they stopped making pottery altogether in 1933.
The pottery made in Utrecht was signed with St Lukas Utrecht Holland, the pottery made in Maarssen is stamped with Maarssen, Made In Holland.
Here are two rare vases made by the factory in 1928 for Queen Mother Emma’s 70th birthday. They were made in several different colours.
35* THE NETHERLANDS AND BELGIUM
The Belgians and the Dutch were united under King Willem I for 15 years but the Belgian elite find the Dutch religious, economic and political dominance unacceptable and thus the Belgians revolt against the Dutch dominance in 1830.
King Willem I fears for his throne if the borders are not brought back to that of the old republic.
In January 1831 the King agrees to separate the countries on the premise of the old borders but the Belgians refuse.
Prince Leopold of Saksen Coburg is crowned King of the Belgians on the 21st the of July 1831 and King Willem sees this as an act of war. He gives Leopold an ultimatum.
On the 2nd August 1831 the Dutch attack the Belgians, the Dutch crown prince Willem, the Prince of Orange is in command of the troops. He leads the army into battle at Ravels on august 3rd.
The battle of Bautersem took place on the last day, august 12th near the city of Leuven. Here the horse of the Prince was shot down by a cannonball the Prince was unharmed.
The Prince tried to avoid a conflict with the French and after intervention of the British minister a truce was settled on the 12th of August. the whole campaign lasted only tien days.
The last Dutch troops withdrew from Belgium on August 20th and Belgium became a country with a constitutional monarchy. The Dutch Royal House of Orange have been banned from ever taking up the Belgian throne at anytime in the future.
Her are two cup and saucers made of Brussels porcelain to commemorate these battles:
34* WILLEM OF ORANGE
Willem of Orange was a ambitious nobleman and rebel who later became known as the father of the fatherland and founder of a new Dutch state.
He was born in 1533 at Dillenburg Castle, his father was Count of the German principality Nassau-Dillenburg, his mother was Countess Juliana of Stolberg.
In 1544 the his cousin Rene Chalon died childless and left all his possessions to Willem including the principality of Orange in France.
From then on Willem was allowed to be known as the Prince of Orange.
He was raised Lutheran but emperor Charles V demanded that the young prince would be further raised as a Catholic.
From 1555 Orange acquired high positions; Military commander, a member of the Council of State, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece and Governor of the provinces of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht and thus became one of the most influential nobles in the Netherlands.
His relationship with Philip II king of Spain and lord of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands and the successor of Charles V, however, deteriorated rapidly. Orange became the main spokesman of the noble opposition party.
From 1568 he carried out several military raids in the Netherlands to put an end to the reign of the Duke of Alva the Spanish ambassador. Also through propaganda (pamphlets, battle songs, prints) he conducted this fight. From this the Dutch national anthem was born “ het Wilhelmus”. Initially he was unsuccessful, but succeeded from 1572
In 1580 the Spanish king Philip put a reward on the head of William of Orange. William responded with a (defense) the scope of these writings was the same: their resistance was justified because the king was behaving like a tyrant.
On July 10, 1584 the Catholic, Balthasar Gerards shot and asassinated William of Orange.
William seemed to have achieved nothing, but twenty five years later the rebellious provinces had evolved to a self-confident Republic and William of Orange was regarded as the founder of this new state.
IN 1933 they celebrated his 400th birthday and many souvenirs were made here are some from our collection:
33* THE ROYAL PALACE ,DAM SQUARE, AMSTERDAM.
As the economy of Amsterdam in the seventeenth century was growing quickly thus the old city hall proved increasingly inadequate. The architect Jacob van Campen designed the new building.
In 1648 construction began, in 1655 it was put into use as the new city hall.
In 1808 the brother of the French emperor Napoleon, Louis Napoleon, made the palace his Royal residence. Two years previously he was appointed by his brother the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte as king of Holland. Only the Bank of Exchange remained as a municipal government function in the building.
The bank redeemed precious metals for cash. Louis showed thus that the market was very important for the economy of the Netherlands.
On the third floor of the palace he built a royal museum. The building was still partly accessible to the public. Louis furnished the palace in the latest French Court Fashions.
Louis abdicated as king in 1810 following a disagreement with his brother.
After the French left the Netherlands, King William I became the first King of the Netherlands in 1813, the City of Amsterdam made the palace available to the King. Although William I did not want to live in the palace, he understood that it was useful to have a palace in the capital city to receive dignitaries. In 1814 he received the Russian Czar Alexander I at the palace.
Kings Willem II and III did not make much use of the palace.
Several times there were calls in the city to revert the palace back to the city hall again. These plans, however, never got beyond the drawing board.
On December 20th 1935 the palace was sold to the government for 10 million guilders. The Royal palace was made permanently available to the Royal House of Orange.
The last years of her reign Queen Wilhelmina used the palace as her “winter palace”, she was often seen painting on the roof of the palace!
Nowadays it is used as a reception palace during state visits, the New Year receptions of the reigning sovereign, now the King and other official royal engagements.
The image of the palace is used on many souvenirs including Royal commemoratives here are some from our collection:
* 32 WILHELMINA OF PRUSSIA (1774-1837)
Wilhelmina Princess of PRUSSIA was born in Potsdam in 1774, by her marriage on 1-10-1791 to William Frederick, Prince of Orange Nassau and the later King William I she became queen consort of the Netherlands in 1815. From this marriage two sons and two daughters were born, of whom one died young; 2 dead children were born.
This was an arranged marriage and was part of a political agreement to boost the prestige of the House of Orange-Nassau in a weakened Republic. However, this did not mean that this was a marriage that lacked personal affection. After the wedding the couple moved to the palace Noordeinde in The Hague. Four years later they fled to England due of the French invasion.
In 1802 Wilhelmina and William were given (via Willem V) the principality of Fulda in Germany. With the death of his father 1806 Willem became head of the House of orange.
In 1814 they settled in The Hague. Her friends and family called Wilhelmina Mimi.
In 1815 Wilhelmina officially became queen consort of the Netherlands. Up to 1830 she commuted to her court between four residences: winters were alternately spent in The Hague or Brussels, summers at Het Loo palace or in Laeken (now Belgium). In 1830 the southern part of the Netherlands became the independent country of Belgium and thus travelling between the two courts came to an end. Wilhelmina was a lover of art and embroidered and painted quite well.
Wilhelmina was queen consort for 23 years. In this role, she remained in the background. From the 1820’s her health deteriorated, but this did not prevent her attending important family events in Berlin. Her last trip was in the spring of 1837, when she attended the baptism of her grandson. On October 12th of the same year Wilhelmina died at almost 63 years of age at Noordeinde Palace. Fourteen days later, she was interred in the royal crypt at the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft.
We have in our collection two items related to Wilhelmina of Prussia. First a cup and saucer made of Brussels porcelain with her portrait from 1830. Made at the time when the southern part of the Netherlands became the independent country of Belgium. Second a plaque made of papier maché with portraits of Wilhelmina and her husband King Willem I ca 1815.
*31 THE DUTCH REGALIA
The crown symbolizes the sovereignty of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The crown also symbolizes the dignity of the head of state. The Dutch king or queen does not undergo a coronation but undergo an Inaugeration, thus the crown is never worn by the new sovereign.
In addition to the crown the other regalia are:
the scepter: the symbol of the authority of the king
the orb: symbol for the territory of the king
the realm sword: symbolizes the power of the king;
the national standard or -banner the Dutch royal coat of arms.
There was no crown present in Brussels in 1815 for the Inaugeration of King William I. The Netherlands had never had a king or queen before so a crown had to be made. There is evidence that preparations were made to design a crown. Three designs were submitted to the king but he opted for a crown based on the crown used for Louis Napoleon, but with 8 brackets.
The crown was very simple and made of gilded bronze and using colored foil mounted glass stones.
The scepter, the orb and sword probably existed already considering the short time they had to prepare for the inauguration. They may have came from the funeral of Stadholder Prince Willem V. There is however, little known about them.
King Wilem II ordered a new crown and regalia for his inauguration. He used the same design but with a more expensive execution. The king had them made at various jewelers.
The crown, orb, scepter and sword of state were now constructed in gilded silver, but again with imitation jewelry. The brackets had 72 imitation pearls placed on them. This crown was designed by the Amsterdam jeweler Bonebakker. The crown cost 1390 guilders and his salary was 600 guilders.
When Wilhelmina was Inaugurated, her mother queen Emma had the crown checked and the larger pearls were replaced by smaller ones and instead of 9 per bracket, there were now five. These regalia are still used by Dutch kings and Queens for their inauguration. The last time in 2013 for the inauguration of King Willem-Alexander.
We have the regalia in miniature in our collection:
Info from the books :
The jewels of the house of Orange by Rene Brus
Inauguration issued by the Nieuwe kerk Amsterdam
30* SPECIAL SOUVENIRS MADE FOR THE WEDDING OF QUEEN WILHELMINA & PRINCE HENDRIK 1901
Following the inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina in 1898, Queen Emma started looking for a suitable partner for her daughter. British candidates were off limits due to the Boer war in South Africa where they stood at opposite ends of the conflict.
The search then turned to Germany. In 1900 Queen-Mother Emma traveled to the castle Schwarzburg in Thüringen for three pre-arranged meetings with possible candidates. Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia and the two brothers Dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. In the end Heinrich (Hendrik in dutch) the only one of the brothers who showed up was chosen.
The announcement of their engagement was made in October.
Wilhelmina and Hendrik had met briefly in 1892 at the golden wedding celebrations of her aunt Sophie of Weimar. A few years later in 1898 they both attended a wedding in Cannes but Wilhelmina developed tonsillitis so could not participate in the festivities and so they never actually met each other.
The civil wedding took place in February of 1901 at the palace Noordeinde in the Hague followed by the religious church ceremony at the St Jacobs church. The couple spent their honeymoon at the palace Het Loo in Apeldoorn.
Here are some rare souvenirs from our collection that were made for this occasion:
The wife of the Dutch ambassador to Spain commissioned a dinner service bearing the portraits of Wilhelmina and Hendrik. Here are a few articles from this service:
A rare glass made in Germany showing the combined coats of arms of Wilhelmina and Hendrik.
29* THE GOLDEN COACH
The golden coach is the official carriage of the Dutch Royal Family.
The people of Amsterdam collected funds and it was made as a gift for her inauguration on the 6th of September 1898. The Queen, however, did not want any gifts for her inauguration so it was presented to her one day later on the 7th September 1898.
The coach was made by the Spijker brothers later known for their car factory.
The Queen first used the coach on her wedding day in 1901 and from 1903 on it is used every year for the opening of parliament.
The coach was not used during the first world war because the army needed the horses even though The Netherlands were neutral during this period of hostilities. The coach is drawn by 8 horses when used by the monarch on all other occasions 6 horses are used.
The coach is made of wood and gold leaf. The interior is decorated with needlepoint embroidery done by orphan girls.
The queen insisted that she could stand up in the coach therefore the arch was used to enable this to happen.
The coach was also used for the wedding of princess Juliana & prince Bernhard in 1937, the christening of princess Beatrix in 1938, the wedding of princess Beatrix and prince Claus in 1966 and the wedding of prince Willem-Alexander and princess Maxima in 2002. ( info: o.a Koninklijk huis website)
Here a foto of the miniature version of the coach in our collection:
28* CENTENARY OF DUTCH INDEPENDANCE 1813-1913
When in late 1813 Napoleon was defeated and the winners rearranged the borders of Europe; The Netherlands who were a part of the French empire since 1806, regained their freedom.
The then prince of Orange Willem Frederik, who lived in exile in England, was asked to become sovereign of the Netherlands, he accepted and arrived by boat at the beach of Scheveningen on the 30th of November 1813.
He was brought onto the beach on the back of a hay wagon. After the proclamation of the sovereign Kingdom of the Netherlands the prince was inaugurated as sovereign in Amsterdam. In 1815 he was officially given the title of King and the Kingdom of the Netherlands was a fact.
One hundred years later in 1913 this important moment in Dutch history was celebrated with large parties and festivities in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Scheveningen. In Amsterdam the celebrations were held a few weeks earlier in September to benefit from the good weather. The highlight of the celebrations in Amsterdam was the first Dutch exhibition on shipping (ENTOS) held in the north of Amsterdam .
To commemorate the centenary of Dutch Monarchy and independence many souvenirs were made. Here are some of the rarest ones from our collection:
info: NPO history & Our Amsterdam.
27* QUEEN WILHELMINA JASPERWARE SOUVENIRS
Jasperware, or jasper ware, is a type of pottery first developed by Josiah Wedgwood in the 1770s. Usually described as stoneware, some authorities have described it as a type of porcelain. It is noted for its matte finish and is produced in a number of different colours. While named after the mineral jasper, modern analyses indicate that barium sulphate is a key ingredient. It is white by nature but stained with metallic oxide colors; its most common shade in commerce is pale blue, but dark blue, lilac, sage green, black, and yellow are also used, with sage green due to chromium oxide, blue to cobalt oxide .
By the time of Josiah’s death in 1795 jasper ware was at the height of fashion. By 1811 its popularity was in the wane and the production of jasper products tailed off. By 1829 production in jasper had virtually ceased but experimentation continued. In 1844 production resumed using jasper as a dip and for applied decoration to a new white porcelain body. Solid jasper was not manufactured again until 1860.
Jean-Baptiste Stahl developed his own style and techniques during his work at Villeroy & Boch in Mettlach, Saar, Germany. His work is praised for the translucency of the white porcelain on a colored background.
Here are some Jasperware souvenirs made for the inauguration and wedding of Queen Wilhelmina :
26* PRINCE FREDERICK OF THE NETHERLANDS (1797-1881)
Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau was the second son of William I of the Netherlands and his wife, Wilhelmine of Prussia. He was born in Berlin as his parents were banned from the Netherlands by the patriot movement.
The prince first entered the Netherlands in December 1813. In 1826 Frederick was appointed Commissioner-General of the Department of War.
As Commissioner, Frederick reorganized the army on the Prussian model, and re-equipped the army with modern weapons. He married his cousin Princess Louise of Prussia. His daughter became queen of Sweden and he became the great grandfather of King Christiaan x of Denmark and King Haakon VII of Norway. In 1829 Frederick was a candidate for the Greek throne, but he declined because he did not want to be king of a country whose language and traditions were foreign to him. He played a big role in the House of Orange family.
He was last seen in public at the baptism of his great cousin Wilhelmina in 1880. He was 84 when he died in 1881, then the longest living member of the House of Orange ever. This record was broken by Princess Juliana when she died aged 94.
Here are two item we have in our collection of Prince Frederick:
25* GLASS SULPHIDES SCENT BOTTLE WITH PORTRAIT OF KING WILLEM I
Glass sulphides, also called Cameo Incrustations, are opaque, usually white, medallions or figurines encased in glass and used to decorate clear glass objects. They often appear on the sides of decanters, jugs, bottles and tumblers. The name sulphide comes from the use of sulphur in the process of manufacturing sulphides in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The sulphide itself is usually made from a clay (or ceramic) and glass paste and is completely encased in glass. The early 19th century patents (innovative English glassmaker Apsley Pellatt (1791-1863) in 1819 in England and Pierre Honore Boudon de Saint-Amans in1818 in France) involved opening up a blown glass bulb while it was still molten, and placing the sulphide inside, then sealing up the opening (by pinching together the molten glass) and sucking out the air to draw the glass and the sulphide together. The most famous and successful producers of sulpides were Apsley Pellat in England from 1819 to the mid-century followed by Baccarat in France. Sulphides are sometimes called “Cameo Incrustations” or “Cameo Encrustations” and Apsley Pellatt originally called them “Crystallo-Ceramie”.
This glass scent bottle has a portrait of King Willem I and was probably made in France in 1813 :
24* THE HOUSE OF ORANGE AND THE ROMANOVS
In 1813 Prince Willem, son of King Willem I, was engaged to be married to the British crown Princess Charlotte Augusta, daughter of the later King George IV; Charlotte however, broke off the engagement.
Czar Alexander of Russia was a good friend of the Dutch crown Prince Willem and he proposed a marriage with his sister Anna Paulownia, they got married on the 21st of February 1816.
In 1840 her father in law, King Willem I, abdicated as he wanted to marry for the second time with a countess Henriette d’Outremont. His son became King Willem II and Anna became Queen of the Netherlands on October 7th 1840 until 1849.
The family ties with Russia continued with the marriage of the son of King Willem II, Willem III with Sophie van Württemberg a cousin of Anna Paulowna. Queen Wilhelmina also married a Romanov offspring. Prince Hendrik was a great grandchild of the eldest sister of Anna Paulowna.
Sophie became Queen of the Netherlands in 1849 until her death in 1877, she was the daughter of Catharina Paulownia off Russia daughter of Czar Paul I.
Below some related items from our collection ( except for the painting):
23* TRIAL LUSTERWARE PLATE BY L.CACHET
RUBY JUBILEE QUEEN WILHELMINA 1938
Following Friggo Visser’s* Lion Cachet study, first in 1994 for the monograph of the Drents Museum Boymans and later for his in PowerPoints documented reading, the particular graphic aspect of the design in question – attributed by him, to 1938 under the luster techniques of Goedewaagen in the 30s.
There is no evidence of a trade edition being released; the Goedewaagen archive for 1938 does have an advertising photo, but this of significantly less interesting work. Only two trial plates exist. Incidentally Lion Cachet in 1938 had obviously at the Royal Delft more success with his design of the year to mark the same event for the Dutch Trading Company.
*Friggo Visser is the curator of the Ceramics Museum Goedewaagen
22* ORANJALIA ON ENGLISH CREAMWARE
Many people have a Royal commemorative somewhere in their home, This was no different at the time of the Dutch republic in the 18th century.
There were many items made with portraits of stadholder (Steward/Luitenant) prince Willem V and his wife. This was however not so innocent as it is nowadays. Having objects at home with reference to the House of Orange was a political statement. It showed if you were a Orangist (someone who is loyal to the house of Orange) or a Patriot (citizens who were trying to stop the political ambitions of the stadholder).
In the 18th century they found a special clay in Staffordshire England, from which they made creamware, a cream coloured pottery.
Josiah Wedgwood established a factory in Burslem in 1759 to produce this creamware. It became very popular in the Netherlands and the Dutch imported the products in large quantities.
The blank pottery such as plates, cups, teapots etc were then decorated in Holland often with portraits and motto’s of the house of Orange.
A lot of items with Prince Willem V and his wife Wilhelmina were made, more than any other Dutch royal previously.
Next to their portraits were their initials in black e.g PVO stands for Prince of Orange and FSW stands for Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina.
In our collection we have the following English creamware items:
info source: The Book Oranjalia on pottery
21* PRINCESS ALICE AND THE HOUSE OF ORANGE
Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, née Princess Alice of Albany; 25 February 1883, was a member of the British Royal Family. She was the only daughter of Leopold the duke of Albany, the youngest son of Queen Victoria, and Princess Helena van Waldeck-Pyrmont, a sister of Queen Emma of the Netherlands. King Willem III was one of her godparents.
She was godmother to Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, who is the granddaughter of her first cousin on her mother’s side, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. On 10 February 1904, Princess Alice of Albany married, Prince Alexander of Teck. After their marriage, Princess Alice was styled HRH Princess Alexander of Teck.
Princess Alice accompanied her husband to Canada where he served as Governor General from 1940 to 1946.
The war was brought close to home for the Athlones also because many of those belonging to displaced European royal families sought refuge in Canada among them Princess Juliana, daughter of Queen Wilhelmina, and her children. She was the last surviving grandchild of Queen Victoria and died in 1981 almost 115 years after the dead of Queen Victoria’s first grandchild.
Her are two souvenirs from our collection:
20* SOUVENIRS FROM THE FRENCH PERIOD OF KING LODEWIJK (LOUIS) NAPOLEON AND QUEEN HORTENSE
Louis Bonaparte was the younger brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, the first king of Holland and the father of the future French emperor Napoleon III.
Louis Napoleon was born on September 2, 1778 in Corsica. He had four brothers one of which was Napoleon Bonaparte, the future Emperor of France.
Louis Napoleon married with Hortense de Beauharnais in 1802 and had three children. One of his sons, Charles Louis Bonaparte, was to become Emperor Napoleon III of France.
Louis served in his youth under his brother Napoleon in the army. After his return to France, Louis at age twenty-five was appointed General in 1799 and took part in the coup of Napoleon to defeat the Directoire. After Napoleon had crowned himself emperor, he pronounced his brother on June 5th 1806 the king of Holland (which is why the Dutch dislike their country The Netherlands being referred to as “Holland”).
Louis was received with suspicion, the Dutch were not happy that their Republic after centuries was replaced by a monarchy. By administrative reforms, new legislation, his performance during the major floods in the Betuwe, Louis won, however, more and more popularity among his subjects. Louis even ignored orders several times from his brother who went against the interests of the country. This earned him the nickname in Holland of Louis the Good.
The behavior of his brother was a thorn in the side of Emperor Napoleon and Lodewijk was deposited on July 1, 1810 as King and went into exile in Austria.
He died on July 25, 1846. Holland was annexed by the French Empire until 1813 when it became the Kingdom of The Netherlands under King Willem I.
Hortense Eugenie Cécile Bonaparte, Queen Consort of Holland.
She was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.
Later became the wife of the former’s brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
She was Queen of Holland from 1806-1810. Their marriage did not work out and she lived by herself in Paris for a while (not liking Holland at all) but Napoleon sent her back to Holland where she and Louis lived in the Palace on Dam Square in Amsterdam. She died of cervical cancer on the 5th of October 1836 in Switzerland.
19* THE AMSTERDAM WORLD EXHIBITIONS 1883 & 1895
The International Colonial and Export Exhibition was a colonial exhibition (a type of World fair) that was held in Amsterdam from May 1 to October 1 1883. The event drew at least a million visitors and was the first international colonial exhibition, with 28 different nations presenting their colonial trade and wealth.
The event was the brainchild of the Frenchman Edouard Agostini. Agostini, who had previously been involved in organizing the 1878 exposition in Paris, presented his plans to the city of Amsterdam and King Willem III in 1880.
The location chosen for the exhibition was an unused area of land behind the Rijksmuseum, which at that time was still under construction. This area is now Museumplein square. Items on show in the main building included a telephone, wood- and metalworking machines, and a safe so large it could fit eight people. The building’s colonial section presented products such as tobacco and rubber, as well as a reconstructe a Javanese style settlement (Kampung) with “natives”. At that time, it was not considered degrading or racist to put humans on display; in fact, it became a regularly featured spectacle at such exhibitions. King Willem III would open the exhibition on the 1st of may 1883. When the King and his entourage arrived more than hundred thousand people were waiting for them. The opening was a little awkward. The King could not get along with Agostini. He knew too many intimate details of the King’s many love affairs. After the official opening the royal party including Queen Emma visited all the pavilions.
The exhibition, bringing more than a million visitors from around the world to Amsterdam, provided the city with a huge economic boost. In Amsterdam, modern-day remains of the exhibition are the front gate of the Vondelpark and a collection of items in the Tropen museum which were on show in the Dutch colonial pavilion. Heineken beer still uses the label Diplôme d’Honneur on its beer bottles, an honour that was bestowed on the brewer at the 1883 colonial exhibition.
Many souvenirs were made for these events, here are some we have in our collection:
18* QUEEN WILHELMINA SOUVENIRS WITH A STANHOPE LENS
Stanhopes or Stanho-scopes are optical devices that enable the viewing of microphotographs without using a microscope. They were invented by René Dagron in 1857. Dagron bypassed the need for an expensive microscope to view the microscopic photographs by attaching the microphotograph at the end of a modified Stanhope lens. He called the devices microscopic photo-jewelry. In 1862, Dagron displayed the devices at the Exhibition in London, where he got an “Honourable Mention” and presented them to Queen Victoria.
The sectioned lens could magnify the microphotograph three hundred times. The modified Stanhope lens was small enough to be mounted in all manner of miniature artifacts such as rings, ivory miniatures, wooden toys etc.
The success of his viewers enabled Dagron to purpose-build a factory dedicated to their production. As of June 1859, Dagron’s factory was manufacturing the stanhopes, mounted in jewellery and souvenirs. In 1860 Dagron obtained the patent for his viewers under the title Bijoux Photomicroscopiques.
In 1972 the factory, run by Roger Remond, produced the last stanhope lens made by the traditional methods.
*17* Special memorabilia pottery made by Amstelhoek en Eskaf
The pottery Amstelhoek was originally founded in 1894 by the Amsterdam goldsmith Willem Christiaan Hoeker.
The company had two specialties, they made design pottery and metal objects.
The manager of the pottery department was the famous Dutch designer, Chris van der Hoef.
In 1903 the company went broke and the pottery side went on with the new name; “Factory for pottery of household and design items formerly known as Amstelhoek”. In 1910 the company was sold to the Distel pottery in Amsterdam.
In 1898 Amstelhoek made a large mug for the inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina.
On the front is a crowned queen Wilhelmina in her coronation robes surrounded by sunbeams/ on the rim the text 6th of September 1898 enthroned.
These items were made in a limited number in the colours powder blue, canary yellow & emerald green and are rare. Also a similar, very rare jug made in olive green.
ESKAF is short for Eerste Steenwijker Kunst en Aardewerk Fabriek; i.e. First Steenwijker design and Earthenware Factory.
In 1918 Hillebrand Ras and his uncle Hein Krop had plans to found a ceramic factory. Ras was an art teacher and owner of a paint and wallpaper shop. Krop was an Alderman of the city of Steenwijk.
The factory was built near the railway and opened in 1919. They started production in 1920, one of the first designers was W H Norden who had worked for the Amsterdam company the Distel. The pottery had a special scarabee stamp.
In 1923 the factory made a vase to commemorate the silver jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina. They also made a large wall charger of the same design, both are very rare and much sought after by ESKAF collectors.
16* RARE QUEEN WILHELMINA COMMEMORATIVES MADE OF GLASS PART 2
Rare Wilhelmina Art Design glasses
Cris Agterberg ( Amsterdam 1883-1948). Went to art school in Elberfeld Germany. He was a sculpter and art designer. In 1924 he designed a number of drinking glasses and breakfast ware for the Leerdam glass factory, these never went into production. He designed Bohemian glassware in various colours enamel paint. In 1923 he designed a number of drink glasses for the silver jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina, these are now very sought after.
In 1932 he became a member of the NSB (National socialist Party) who were supporters of the Nazi regime.
In 1947 He was convicted for his behaviour during the war. By this time he was terminally ill and thus never went to prison, he died in 1948.
Information source: National Glassmuseum
A.J Van Kooten
A. J van kooten ( Utrecht 1894-Leerdam 1951). He was a glass artist. He worked for the leerdam Glass factory for a short while. In 1930 he started his own business in Leerdam called the Lingestroom. He made colourfull glass vases etc which he designed with enamel paint.
His work was influenced by the designer Jaap Gidding.
In 1926 he made two special drink glasses to commemorate the silver wedding of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik.
15* THE FIRST WILHELMINA COMMEMORATIVES
Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria was born on the 31st of august 1880 in Apeldoorn. She was the only child of King Willem III and his second wife Queen Emma van Waldeck-Pyrmont. She had three half brothers from her father’s first marriage to Sophie van Württemberg: Willem (1840-1879), Maurits (1843-1850) en Alexander (1851-1884), Alexander was the only one still alive at the time of her birth.
The Royal House of Orange was not that popular in 1880 (mainly due to the antics of her father) and the news of the birth of a Princess was met with mixed reactions in the press.
As far as we know the only commemorative made for the birth was a porcelain figurine of a cot with the baby Wilhelmina.
When her half brother died in 1884 the little princess became heir to the throne and the future of the house of Orange was safe for the time being.
The Dutch loved their little princess and several commemoratives were made with her portrait.
In our collection we have two eau-de-cologne bottles, two cup and saucers, a child’s lidded stein, a pocket knife a biscuit figurine and two very rare glass domes with the Royal family made of wax.
14* RARE QUEEN WILHELMINA COMMEMORATIVES MADE OF GLASS PART 1
The Royal Leerdam glass factory has produced some rare glass commemoratives for the inauguration and different jubilees of Queen Wilhelmina.
In 1898 they made various engraved drinking glasses for the inauguration but also a gin carafe with the portrait of the young Queen.
In 1923 Leerdam designer A.D. Copier designed a glass for the Queen’s silver jubilee. The purple and blue glasses are very common but there are some variations which are less known. Here some examples:
Copier also designed a glass for the silver jubilee in 1923, there were only 100 of these glasses made, which is very rare to find. The glass is hand painted by A. J van Kooten a well known glass decorator at the factory.
In 1926 Copier designed the orange Beer Beaker to commemorate the silver wedding anniversary of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik, again made by the Leerdam factory.
In 1948 Copier designed a glass goblet for the golden jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina .
Research by the National Glass Museum has discovered the drawings for this pressed glass goblet by A.D. Copier, but it seems that the item was never offered for sale. Possibly due to an insurmountable problem with the production of this design, the factory seems to have given the whole production away to schoolchildren in Leerdam. This is a very sought after item.
Information source: National Glassmuseum, The complete works of A.D Copier.
Also in 1948 the factory made a glass dish for the golden jubilee. The dish was only given as a gift to the ministers who were in the government in 1948. Not many were made, the designer is unknown.
13* TRIAL EXAMPLES
1) The Porceleyne Fles factory in Delft made a 2 different polychrome plates for the inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina, both hand painted. Neither went into production.
2) Carel lion Cachet who was the chief designer for the Distel factory from 1911 until 1938, designed a plate for the silver jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina. This design was made in various colours but never went into production. Only a few plates are known to exist (info from the Goedewaagen museum).
3) The owner of Polmann Art Galley situated in the city of Nijmegen We have in our collections a few items made with the intention of putting these not general production for sale to the general public. Following the trial it was decided not to put them into production because they were to labour intensive to make.commissioned plates and beakers for several Royal occasions. These two beakers made for the silver jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina were hand painted and were decided too expensive to make, thus were never offered for sale in the gallery.
Source of Information: Ceramic Goedewaagen Museum
12* THIMBLE MADE TO COMMEMORATE THE WEDDING OF QUEEN WILHELMINA 1901
This thimble was made by maison Alfred Féau in 1901 to commemorate the wedding of Queen Wilhelmina to Prince Hendrik of Mecklenburg. The top was waffle dimpled and the band depicted the young child Queen playing with her doll, as a young woman doing embroidery and as Queen wearing a crown. The other side has the Dutch Royal Coat of Arms. It is stamped with the French boar’s head as silver hallmark.
The original thimble was made in gold and also in silver. A gold one housed in a special case was presented to Queen Wilhelmina, is kept in the Royal archives.
The thimble was reissued in 1970’s by Roger Lenain who had purchased the Feau company in 1964. The original mould was used but this time the sides had a polished finish (see photo).
See also :http://thimbles.host-ed.me/wisbister/Royal_thimbles.html
11* ORANJALIA MADE BY FOREIGN FIRMS
Important Dutch royal events have long been celebrated with souvenirs made by foreign (outside of The Netherlands) companies.
Some of the first were made in 1813 with the establishment of the Dutch monarchy, souvenirs were made of porcelain in Brussels (then a part of The Netherlands, prior to the creation of the country of Belgium)
The inauguration of Queen Wilhelmina saw a great change in this. The beautiful young queen on the throne spoke to many an imagination and several foreign firms brought commemorative souvenirs onto the Dutch market for the first time (commercial, not philanthropic motives!). A few items were also commissioned by Dutch companies.
In France, the company Sarreguemines made tableware such as dinner plates, beakers, cups and saucers, cake plates & bonbonnieres etc. A fantasy design of a portrait of Queen Wilhelmina surrounded by cherubs. They also made an unusual green majolica plate made with the text “Reine Wilhelmine” = French for Queen Wilhelmina.
The French firm Limoges dishes made with the portrait of Queen Wilhelmina in Frisian costume based on the portrait painted by Paul Berthon.
In 1948 the company also made a small plaquette on the occasion of the inauguration of Queen Juliana.
The French company Sevres also made a beautiful porcelain plate. This rare plate was commissioned by a large department store Wright Lyndale & Roden in Philadelphia USA. It shows Wilhelmina Frisian costume based on the portrait painted by Paul Berthon.
Germany also produced various souvenirs made in 1898, some of the most stunning were made by the factory Krefeld making plates, cups and saucers and tiles. They also made a service order for the wife of the Dutch ambassador in Madrid, Spain to celebrate the wedding of Queen Wilhelmina in 1901. Once again In 2013 a German company made a tankard on the occasion of the inauguration of King Willem-Alexander.
The English firm Wedgwood made several plaques in 3 colours in 1898 for the Inaugeration of Queen Wilhelmina.
In 1988 the English firm Panorama Studios made a beaker for the 50th birthday of Queen Beatrix.
The English firm Chown made a beaker and teapot in a limited edition for the wedding of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Maxima in 2002, commissioned and designed by Paul Wyton and Joe Spiteri. In 2004 the same designers commissioned a cup on the occasion of the death of Queen Juliana and in 2005 a cup on the occasion of the silver jubilee of Queen Beatrix. Here some examples:
10* THE COMMERCIAL SIDE OF QUEEN WILHELMINA
King Willem III married his second wife Emma in 1879 and was 63 years old when their daughter Wilhelmina was born in 1880.
The King died in 1890 when the popularity of the monarchy was at its lowest.
Wilhelmina became Queen at the young age of 10 thus Queen Emma, Wilhelmina’s mother, became Queen regent.
She understood that the image of the young Queen should be used to promote the monarchy, thus making her the 1st PR manager of her time. She took the young Wilhelmina on a promotion tour to all the Dutch provinces with huge success, the young Queen, and her mother the Regentess, became very popular.
Portraits of both of them were therefore used to promote all kinds of products for example on chocolate, biscuits, cigars soap etc.
Here are some examples:
9* Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch East Indies.
Queen Wilhelmina was very interested in The Dutch East Indies, however her knowledge of the land came from books and people who visited the place. But when suggested she should visit the country herself she would not even consider it.
She did not like hot weather, she was also afraid she would get seasick on the long sea journey. None of her forefathers, the Kings Willem I,II,and III, ever visited The Dutch East Indies. The only member of the royal family who did visit during the colonial period was the son of the later King Willem II, H.R.H. Prince Frederik Hendrik.
At the outbreak of world war two there was talk of moving the Dutch government to Batavia. The Netherlands were overrun and occupied by the Nazis and the Queen and her government were quickly moved to England. The Queen still refused to move to The Dutch East Indies using “the heat” as her excuse!!
This was probably her best decision in retrospect as The Dutch East Indies was shortly after invaded by the Japanese!!!
Queen Wilhelmina was very much loved and admired in The Dutch Indies and several commemoratives were made especially for the rich upper class in this overseas market.
Here some examples:
8* THE SILVER ENAMELED PORTRAIT SPOONS AND THE GRAND TOUR
The Grand tour
From the 1890’s up to the beginning of World War I wealthy Americans would undertake the Grand tour of Europe in 60 days. They would visit all the important places in Europe, Amsterdam was day 24 and 25 on this tour.
The American tourists would take home a souvenir of the places they visited on the tour. One of their favorite items were customized silver spoons showing the names of the places they had seen. These spoons were small and easy to take back home. But if something special was wanted then they would purchase a silver spoon with a portrait of the ruling Monarch/Head of State of the country they visited. The ruling monarchs, nobility and heads of state of Europe were important figures in those times and so their portraits were hand painted on the spoon bowl by highly skilled miniaturists. These spoons were usually made on order and were very expensive. This makes them very rare and sought after. Her some examples:
7* QUEEN WILHELMINA SILVER CORONATION GLASS 1898
The glass comes from the grandfather of a friend of ours, the father of his mother.
An aunt of the grandfather worked as a cleaner at the Palace on Dam Square. She was presented with the glass on the occasion of the coronation of Queen Wilhelmina in 1898.
The glass has a silver portrait of Queen Wilhelmina and a silver rim.
info came from Linda Neijhof
6* PAUL BERTHON’S ART NOUVEAU LITHO OF QUEEN WILHELMINA 1901
The French graphic artist Paul Berthon (1872-1909) was known for his beautiful art nouveau posters and litho’s of women.
In 1901 he made this portrait of the young Queen Wilhelmina and he called it Sa Tres Gracieuse Majeste La Reine Wilhelmine.
It shows Wilhelmina as a young , resolute queen of the Netherlands, with a lace bonnet and a background of dutch landscape and tulips and windmills.
This portrait of the queen in Friesian Dutch costume was very popular and the image was used of ceramic plates, posters, postcards etc.
Here some examples:
5* GOLD WATCH WEDDING QUEEN WILHELMINA AND PRINCE HENDRIK 1901
This 18 carat gold watch was a gift to the ladies on the day of the wedding of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik in 1901. Queen Wilhelmina had only 3 ladies-in-waiting so this one is very rare and the only (known) in private ownership.
The Dutch were in conflict with the British so Wilhelmina went Germany to look for her marriage partner. Along with her mother Queen Emma, she traveled in May 1900 off to the castle in Schwarzenburg. Both mother and daughter chose Heinrich, later known by the Dutch version of his name: Prince Hendrik. They were very distantly related by the Russian Tsar Paul I and his wife Maria Feodorovna their common ancestors.
The wedding took place on February 7, 1901 coupled with much public display. The Golden Coach (a coronation gift for the young queen in 1898) was used for the 1st time for this royal occasion. Prince Hendrik had renounced German citizenship and had become Dutch citizen. A year after the marriage Wilhelmina became seriously ill; she had developed typhoid. Should she have died, then the Dutch throne would have reverted to the German branch of the family, as Wilhelmina was the last Orange Scion, luckily she survived. For a long time the marriage was childless. On April 30, 1909 their 1st and only child was born: Juliana, the future heir to the throne.
It is known that this watch was also made in silver, most probably given to lesser dignitaries of the Dutch royal court.
4* ROYAL VIENNA PORTRAIT PLATE QUEEN WILHELMINA 1898
The name Royal Vienna (known as Viennese porcelain) refers to a style of porcelain that was very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
There were several factories that made this kind of porcelain made especially in Austria and Germany. They produced beautiful portraits in this style all hand-painted, signed and of the highest quality they are much sought after by collectors.
Portraits of royalty, nobility and the famous were depicted. Pure 22 carat gold is used for the decoration on the plate.
This plate with the portrait of Queen Wilhelmina was painted in 1898 on the occasion of her inauguration as Queen of The Netherlands, we have been informed there are only two of these plates made; one in possession of the Dutch royal family and this one in our collection.
3* PRINCESS MARIANNE OF ORANGE-NASSAU
MARIANNE Princess of Orange-Nassau (born Berlin 9-5-1810 – died Erbach, Germany, 29-5-1883.).
Daughter of William Frederick (1772-1843), later King William I of The Netherlands and Queen Wilhelmina (Princess of Prussia).
Marianne married on 14th of September 1830 Frederick Henry Prince Albert of Prussia (1809-1872). From this marriage five children were born, two of whom died young. The marriage ended in divorce in 1849. Marianne moved from Berlin to Voorburg near The Hague and began a relationship with Johannes van Rossum (1809-1873) her coachman; a son was born from this extramarital relationship
Living openly with her subordinate caused a scandal and social measures against Marianne were hard: she was expelled from Prussia and separated from her children. Also, King William II and his wife Queen Anna Pavlovna cut off all contact with her.
The scandal surrounding Princess Marianne was not hidden from the public. The Dutch tabloids regularly wrote about her extraordinary circumstances. The ‘Prussian connection’ of the Orange house was damaged by it. Only in the twentieth century does interest arise for the special life of this Princess Marianne. The Princess Marianne died in 1883.
Marianne is buried in the grave of her beloved Van Rossum, the German Erbach in the Rheingau. Queen Wilhelmina toyed with the idea to bring her ‘back’ to the royal crypt in Delft. However, this has never happened.
Given the difficult life story of Princess Marianne there are not many souvenirs made showing her likeness, that makes these items very special and very rare.
The vase is made of Brussels porcelain and has a hand painted portrait of the Princess of 1830. Probably made to commemorate her wedding with Prince Albert. The pipe is from alter dat ca 1834.
2* The ENGAGEMENT PLATE OF PRINCESS JULIANA TO PRINCE KAREL OF SWEDEN.
THE ENGAGEMENT PRINCESS JULIANA
In 1934 Queen Wilhelmina was looking for a suitable husband for her daughter Princess Juliana, who was 23 years old at that time.
Originally Princess Juliana was going to be engaged to Prince Karel of Sweden. The Prince however requested the title of King Consort, a role in Dutch politics and a yearly allowance of one million guilders. The engagement never came to fruition and the search for a husband continued.
As we now know she eventually married Prince Bernhard of Lippe Biesterveld in 1937.
The rumours of a royal wedding also fired the ever entrepreneurial Dutch into producing betrothal souvenirs such as postcards.
Lion Cachet, a famous Dutch designer and friend of the Dutch Royal family, designed a plate for the occasion. As usual for his trial pieces only 3 were made (one for each of his children). Following the breakdown in negotiations between the Dutch & Swedish authorities the plate never went into production thus making it very rare and sought after item.
1* THE RUSSIAN QUEEN WILHELMINA CUP / BEAKER
The maker of the beaker was B. Gottlieb of Brno, Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) – the Grandson of the factory owner was MD of Phillips, the electrical manufacturers, in The Netherlands.
The Town Museumm in Brno has one on display but did not know of its history/background -it was not until about 1993 however that they dared to display a card with the mug explaining the background!!
The cup bears the cyphers of Nicholas and Alexandra surrounded by a geometric pattern with the Romanov eagle on the opposite side.
The beaker is among many that were distributed along with food presents and commemorative scarves to celebrate the coronation of Nicholas II, as had been the long-standing tradition. On the morning of 18 May 1896, over half a million revelers gathered on the ragged Khodynka Field in Moscow in anticipation of the presents and especially the commemorative cups (enameled tableware was still a great novelty at the time). That was far more than the field could safely accommodate, especially considering the many trenches and pits that dotted the plain in front of the Tsar’s podium, because the entire area was normally used as a military training ground. A rumor swept through the crowd that the cups contained a gold coin. In the confusion and stampede that ensued, over a thousand people were trampled to death in what has become known as the Khodynka Tragedy. This event was taken as an omen of things to come for the rest of Nicholas’ reign. The coronation cup became known in Russia as the Cup of Sorrows and the Tsar himself got the nickname of “Bloody Nicholas” – despite his best efforts to compensate the families of the victims. It was the Tsarina who named it the “cup of sorrows.”
Many of these beakers were not handed out to the Russian citizens on the day of the coronation due to the disaster.
The 18 year old Dutch Queen Wilhelmina was enthroned in 1898, 2 years after the disastrous coronation of Czar Nicholas.
A smart Dutch business man from the Hague bought the surplus of Russian beakers still left in a warehouse. He had a cardboard portrait of Queen Wilhelmina glued onto the front and the Dutch coat of arms on the reverse.. These were sold in The Hague as the Russian Wilhelmina cup ( see photo of original advertisement) for 30 cents each. As the portraits were glued onto the cups most of them came off in time due to washing as general use (probably peeled off by nosey children). Thus making an original Russian Wilhelmina cup in good condition, very rare and more sought after that the original beaker.
In 1902 the a similar design based on the original Russian design was used on an enamel coronation cup for King Edward VII. ( see photo).
In 1996 the Russian cup was reissued in enamel by a German society dedicated to preserving the mastership of this design, in a limited edition of 1000. We have number 392.